विज्ञानभैरवः ※ Vijñānabhairava ※ Vigyan Bhairav Tantra ※ 奧祕之書
Verse 24 –
Dhāraṇā 1(Lakshmanjoo) / 1(Jaideva Singh) / 1(Paul Reps) / VBT 1(Osho)
ऊर्ध्वे प्राणो ह्यधो अधो जीवो विसर्गात्मा परोच्चरेत्
उत्पत्तिद्वितयस्थाने, भरणाद्भरिता स्थितिः
ūrdhve prāṇo hyadho jīvo visargātmā paroccaret
utpattidvitayasthāne bharaṇādbharitā sthitiḥ [Lakshmanjoo]
Parā devī or Highest Śakti who is of the nature of visarga goes on (ceaselessly) expressing herself upward (ūrdhve) (from the centre of the body to dvādaśānta or a distance of twelve fingers) in the form of exhalation (prāṇa) and downward (adhaḥ) (from dvādaśānta to the centre of the body) In the form of inhalation (jiva or apāna). By steady fixation of the mind (bharaṇāt) at the two places of their origin (viz., centre of the body in the case of prāṇa and dvādaśānta in the case of apāna), there is the situation of plenitude (bharitāsthitiḥ which is the state of parāśakti or nature of Bhairava). [Jaideva Singh]
Radiant one, this experience may dawn between two breaths. After breath comes in (down) and just before turning up (out) — the beneficence. [Paul Reps · Osho]
光彩四溢的人呀，這個經驗可在一呼一吸之間明朗。 在吸氣完了(下)而呼氣將畢(上)之前——慈善。 [徐進夫]
Lakshmanjoo解釋utpatti dvitaya sthāne為"這兩個起點", Paul Reps的英譯僅指出進來的氣與出去的氣之間. 奧修的解說補充了出去的氣與進來的氣之間, 不過從他援引佛陀的話語以及自己的闡釋可看出此技巧, 既然列於全篇112個同時是其中呼吸技巧的首位, 以前者即入息和出息在自身內部的轉換之處作為覺知重心是適當的.
奧修的解說則既提空隙的觀照也談呼吸的停止, 這已超前到Verse25至27也就是之後三個技巧的內容. 按照Jaideva Singh引Śivopādhyāya對Bharaṇāt所作的註釋, 應覺察的是在兩個轉換點呼吸暫歇之中, 依然留存並顯露出的神性脈動(spanda)與亮光. 隨後他提及此技巧的另一種詮釋, 即Lakshmanjoo認為的練習方法, 那就是在出去的氣—轉換點以及起來的氣—轉換點此過程中, 分別頌念sa—visarga, ha—’ṁ’-kara. Jaideva Singh歸納成公式’Haṃsaḥ’. Silburn亦提到有別處經句指出此公式.
兩個氣息於身內和身外的轉換點, 前者在Lakshmanjoo, Jaideva Singh, Silburn三人皆是指心(hṛdaya或hṛt), 後者則是從鼻尖算起12個指寬之處(dvādaśānta). Silburn另有談到, 當修行入微時dvādaśānta會移至頂輪.
經文裡有出現prāṇaḥ和jīvaḥ, 後者又稱apāna. 然而不同於普遍認知的吠陀與瑜伽觀念, 在這篇Vijñānabhairava裡prāṇaḥ是指出息, apāna是指入息. 另外, 一般會以prana來描述氣或生命能量, 奧修也是如此, 而Jaideva Singh的注釋則認為是apana即氣息的返回才能提供生命—-jiva. Lorin Roche的看法為prana是生命的氣息, jiva是有別於宇宙靈魂, 由生命氣息濃縮於自身而成的個體靈魂.
Visargātmā在Jaideva Singh的譯解裡直指無上的devī或最高的Śakti, Lakshmanjoo意譯為至上能量, Silburn則依據對它可能的解讀來判別此技巧所屬的路徑層次.
ऊर्ध्वे प्राणो ह्यधो अधो जीवो
विसर्गात्मा परोच्चरेत् ।
भरणाद्भरिता स्थितिः ।।२४।।
śrī bhairava uvāca
ūrdhve prāṇo hyadho jīvo
visargātmā paroccaret /
bharaṇādbharitā sthitiḥ // 24 //
Ūrdhve means “from upwards".
The movement from upwards (ie., from the heart to dvādaśānta) is prāṇaḥ (prāṇaḥ means, the outgoing breath). Adhaḥ, from dvādaśānta to hṛdaya (the heart) is jīvaḥ (jīvaḥ means, the in-going breath).
The outgoing breath is represented by ‘sa’ and the ingoing breath is represented by ‘ha’. So ‘sa’ and ‘ha’, visargātmā parā uccaret utpatti dvitaya sthāne; utpatti dvitaya sthāne, [these are] two starting points. From the heart, there is one starting point, and from bāhya dvādaśānta, there is another starting point (that is utpatti dvitaya, two starting points). There, visargātmā parā uccaret, this supreme energy, which is full of visarga, appears. And by this process, bharaṇāt bharitā sthitiḥ, bharitā sthiti, bhairavasya sthitiḥ syāt, one becomes one with Bhairava, bharaṇāt, because of its fullness.
This upāya, this means, is connected with āṇavopāya. It can’t be śāktopāya or śāmbhavopāya. It is āṇavopāya because it is functioning in the field of objective consciousness.
Ūrdhve, you have to take the breath [out] from the heart to dvādaśānta, and take it in from dvādaśānta to the heart again, and recite prāṇa and jīva. “Recite prāṇa" means, recite ‘sa’, the letter ‘sa’, and “recite jīva” [means, recite] the letter ‘ha’. And, in these utpatti dvitaya, in these two starting points, you have to recite visarga and ‘ṁ’-kara. The visarga of ‘sa’ will be recited in the outward dvādaśānta, and the ‘ṁ’-kara of ‘ha’ will be recited in the heart. When you take your breath inside, [the recitation of “ha"] will end in ‘ṁ’. When you take it out, [the recitation of ‘sa’ will end in visarga – ‘saḥ’. And, in these two starting points, if you concentrate, you will become one with Bhairava because of its fullness.
This is āṇavopāya.
ऊर्ध्वे प्राणो ह्यधो जीवो विसर्गात्मा परोच्चरेत् ।
उत्पत्तिद्वितयस्थाने, भरणाद् भरिता स्थितिः ।।२४।।
Śrī bhairava uvāca
Ūrdhve prāṇo hy adho jīvo visargātmā paroccaret /
Utpattidvitayasthāne bharaṇād bharitā sthitiḥ // 24
Parā devī or Highest Śakti who is of the nature of visarga1 goes on (ceaselessly) expressing herself upward (ūrdhve) (from the centre of the body to dvādaśānta2 or a distance of twelve fingers) in the form of exhalation (prāṇa) and downward (adhaḥ) (from dvādaśānta to the centre of the body) in the form of inhalation (jiva or apāna)3. By stead fixation of the mind (bharaṇāt)4 at the two places of their origin (viz., centre of the body in the case of prāṇa and dvādaśānta in the case of apāna), there is the situation of plenitude (bharitāsthitiḥ which is the state of parāśakti or nature of Bhairava).5
1. Visargātmā—who is of the nature of visarga . The word visarga means letting go , projection or creation, i.e. who is creative . The creative function of the Divine includes two movements—outward and inward or centrifugal and centripetal. In living beings, the outward or centrifugal movement is represented by expiration or exhalation; the inward or centripetal movement is represented by inspiration or inhalation. Parā or parā devī or Parā śakti is designated as Visargātmā, because it is by this rhythm of centrifugal and centripetal movement that she carries on the play of life whether in the macrocosm or the microcosm. This movement is known as uccāra or spandana or ceaseless throb of Parādevī.
In Sanskrit, visarga is represented by two points or dots one above the other . One point in this case is dvādaśānta where prāṇa ends and the other is the hṛt centre of the body where apāna ends. It is because of these two points also that Parāśakti is known as visargātmā.
2. Dvādaśānta—literally meaning ‘end of twelve’ indicates the point at a distance of 12 fingers from the tip of the nose in the outer space where expiration arising from the centre of the human body, and passing through the throat and the nose ends. This is known as bāhya dvādaśānta or the external dvādaśānta.
3. The apāna or inhalation is called jīva, because it is the inhalation or return movement of the breath that is responsible for life.
4. Bharaṇāt here means by close observation or one-pointed awareness. Awareness of what? Śivopādhyāya in his commentary clears this point in the following way:
“Bharaṇāditi—nityonmiṣadādyasphurattātmabhairavīyaśaktyupalaksaņāt." i.e. bharaṇāt here means by an intent awareness of that who by implication is the ever-risen initial flash of the śakti of Bhairava.
5. The dhāraṇā or the yogic practice referred to in this verse is the following:
There are two points or poles between which respiration goes on constantly. One of these is dvādaśānta in the outer space where prāṇa or exhalation ends and the other hṛt or the centre inside the body where apāna or inhalation ends . At each of these points, there is viśrānti or rest for a split second. The breath does not actually stop there totally but remains in the form of a throb of śakti in suspended animation and then again the breathing process starts. One should contemplate over the śakti that appears in the period of rest and should remain mindful of it even while the breathing process starts. By constant practice of this dhāraṇā, he will realize the state of plenitude of Bhairava (bharitā sthitiḥ).
As this practice is without any support of vikalpa, it is Śāmbhava upāya.
There is another important interpretation of this dhāraṇā. In inhalation, the sound of ha is produced; in exhalation, the sound saḥ is produced; at the junction point in the centre the sound of ṃ is added. So the whole formula becomes ‘Haṃsaḥ’. The parādevī goes on sounding this formula or mantra ceaselessly in every living being. Hṛdaya or the centre is the starting point of the sound ha and dvādaśānta is the starting point of the sound saḥ. By contemplating over these two points, one acquires the nature of Bhairava. This would be an āṇava upāya. Śaḥ represents Śiva; ha represents Śakti; ṃ represents nara. So in this practice, all the three main elements of Trika philosophy, viz, Śiva, Śakti and Nara are included.
Tout comme le soleil se lève à l’est et se couche à l’ouest, le souffle expiré (prāṇa) se léve dans le cæur et se couche dans le dvādaśānta extérieur. Le souffle inspiré (apāna ou jīva) poursuit le cours inverse.
Just as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, the exhaled breath (prāṇa) rises in the heart and sets in the outer dvādaśānta. The inspired breath (apāna or jīva) continues the reverse course.
Lorsqu’il s’agit du fonctionnement ordinaire du souffle, le dvādaśānta se situe extérieurement à douze largeurs de doigts au-delà de l’extrémité du nez, point précis où le souffle expiré disparaît. Mais chez le grand yogin, lors du fonctionnement de son énergie vitale que désigne le terme uccāra, surrection, le souffle, au lieu de se frayer un chemin vers le dehors, emprunte la voie médiane (suṣumnā) pour s’élever du cæur jusqu’au dvādaśānta Intérieur lequel se confond à ce moment avec le brahmarandhra situé au sommet du cerveau. L’énergie assume alors son aspect infiniment subtil de kuṇḍalini figurée ici par le visarga qui s’exprime en devanāgarī par deux points (:) et, phonématiquement, par une légère aspiration du souffle. Ce visarga ne se comprend bien que par rapport au bindu: à l’origine il n’existe qu’un seul point, le bindu, qui symbolise l’unique Śiva ; mais aucun mouvement ne pouvant se produire dans l’unité indivise, le bindu doit se scinder en deux pôles entre lesquels s’effectuera le mouvement spécifique propre au visarga.
When it comes to the ordinary functioning of the breath, the dvādaśānta is externally twelve finger widths beyond the tip of the nose, the precise point where the exhaled breath disappears. But in the great yogin, during the functioning of his vital energy which is designated by the term uccāra, uplifting, the breath, instead of making its way outward, takes the middle path (suṣumnā) to rise from the heart to the Inner dvādaśānta which merges at this time with the brahmarandhra located at the top of the brain. The energy then assumes its infinitely subtle aspect of kuṇḍalini represented here by the visarga which is expressed in devanāgarī by two dots (:) and, phonetically, by a slight aspiration of the breath. This visarga can only be understood well in relation to the bindu: originally there is only one point, the bindu, which symbolizes the unique Śiva ; but since no movement can occur in the undivided unit, the bindu must split into two poles between which the specific movement proper to the visarga will take place.
Les courants vitaux centripètes et centrifuges (prāna et apāna) fonctionnent constamment et toujours de concert. Un śloka précise que sous forme de HA et de SA ils engendrent en fusionnant en un point (bindu Ṃ) la formule HAṂSA, l’état du milieu ou vacuité dans laquelle s’unissent puis disparaissent les énergies inspirée et expirée.
The centripetal and centrifugal vital currents (prāna and apāna) work constantly and always in concert. A śloka specifies that in the form of HA and SA they generate by merging in a point (bindu Ṃ) the formula HAṂSA, the middle state or emptiness in which the inspired and expired energies unite and then disappear.
Les souffles prennent naissance en deux points : le lotus du cæur et le dvādaśānta et c’est là qu’ils se reposent lorsque la respiration est suspendue. Maintenus dans leur espace respectif, ils s’intériorisent (antarmukha) et acquièrent une certaine plénitude. On nomme visrānti, repos du souffle, l’intervalle (madhya) durant lequel le souffle ni n’entre ni ne sort. Ainsi la plénitude à laquelle notre verset fait allusion est celle du visarga partout présent et toujours chargé d’énergie vitale accumulée du fait que chacun des deux points qui le constituent se trouve alternativement rempli d’énergie. Mais, plus encore, elle est faite de la félicité qui accompagne le fonctionnement automatique et spontané des souffles introvertis et bien équilibrés en samāna.
The breaths originate at two points: the heart lotus and the dvādaśānta and it is there that they rest when the breath is suspended. Maintained in their respective space, they interiorize (antarmukha) and acquire a certain fullness. We call visrānti, rest of the breath, the interval (madhya) during which the breath neither enters nor leaves. Thus the plenitude to which our verse alludes is that of the visarga everywhere present and always charged with the vital energy accumulated by the fact that each of the two dots which constitute it is alternately filled with energy. But, even more, it is made of the bliss which accompanies the automatic and spontaneous functioning of the introverted and well-balanced breaths in samāna.
Cette pratique peut appartenir à l’une ou à l’autre des trois voies selon l’interprétation du terme visarga : si l’on identifie les deux pôles à la subjectivité (ahantā) et à l’objectivité (idantā), il s’agira de la voie de Śiva Qu’ou en fasse les énergies de connaissance et d’activité, le yogin suivra la voie de l’énergie. Par contre, à qui s’avance doucement sur la voie de l’individu, ces pôles ne représenteront que les souffles inspiré et expiré. Mais quelle que soit l’interprétation donnée, le yogin réside dans la plénitude Indifférenciée, à la jonction de ces deux pôles, dans l’état nu de l’énergie, état plénier de Bhairava.
This practice can belong to one or the other of the three paths depending on the interpretation of the term visarga: if we identify the two poles with subjectivity (ahantā) and objectivity (idantā), it will act in the way of Śiva or make it the energies of knowledge and activity, the yogin will follow the way of energy. On the other hand, to those who advance slowly on the path of the individual, these poles will only represent the breaths inspired and expired. But whatever interpretation is given, the yogi resides in Undifferentiated Fullness, at the junction of these two poles, in the naked state of energy, the full state of Bhairava.
Ainsi le śloka 24, le premier à exposer l’une des cent douze instructions données pour réaliser l’énergie—énergie qui à son tour permettra d’atteindre Śiva—concerne les trois voies (upāya) que l’homme peut suivre afin de reprendre conscience de soi.
So the śloka 24, the first to expound one of the one hundred and twelve instructions given for realizing energy — energy which in turn will achieve Śiva — concerns the three paths (upāya) that man can follow in order to regain self-awareness.
The supreme Shakti reveals herself when inbreath and outbreath are born and die at the two extreme points, top and bottom. Thus, between two breaths, experience infinite space.
śrī bhairava uvāca
ūrdhve prāṇo hy adho jīvo visargātmā paroccaret |
utpatti dvitaya sthāne bharaṇād bharitā sthitiḥ || 24 ||
shree bhairava uvaacha
oordhve praano hi adhas jeevah visarga-aatmaa paraa ud-charet
ut-patti-dvitaya-sthaane bharanaad bharitaa-sthitih
Bhairava begins the 112 yuktis with this invitation to Devi: urdhva prana—"as we exhale, the breath of life flows upwards into heaven where it came from." Urdhva is “upward moving, rising, to go upwards into heaven." Prana is “the breath of life."
The next two words are adhas jiva—"as you inhale, the breath of life flows downwards through the body to the genitals." Adhas is “below, down, in the lower region, the external genitals—and specifically in a woman’s body the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vestibule of the vagina." Jiva means “the individual soul, the living or personal soul as distinguished from the universal soul," and “the principle of life, the breath."
Breathing is rhythm, a play of opposites. Here you are invited to enjoy the play of prana, the universal breath of life and jiva, the individual soul, the way the breath of life condenses into you. Another play of opposites is up and down—upward into the sky above you and downward into the brightness of the pelvis.
A good way to initiate yourself into this practice is to go outside, where you can feel the sky and earth, and take a standing posture. As you breathe out, let your hands flow upward along the front of your body to the area above your head. As you breathe in, let your hands float back down toward your pelvis. This is an easy gesture, as eloquent as conductors waving their hands as they direct an orchestra. After you get the sense of this wonderful flow, you can continue the movement in any posture—sitting or lying down or dancing. Exhaling upwards, give your breath to infinity. Inhaling downwards, receive the nourishing fullness of your individuality.
As you exhale, whisper the word prana to yourself, and notice your relationship to the mystery of universality. Follow the motion upwards from your heart into heaven. As you inhale and receive the breath, whisper jiva, and notice your relationship with the mystery of individuality. Allow your attention to travel down from the space above your head, to the heart, to the area between your legs, and even to your feet. Everywhere in the body is spiritual and sacred.
As you get used to this movement, add another motion: tilt the head back slightly as you breathe out, so you are facing upward, and tilt the head downward slightly as you inhale.
The rhythm of the breath happens twenty-two thousand times a day. When you spend just a few of these times in delight and wonder, it begins to transform the other 99.999 percent that you take for granted.
Breathing out, quietly celebrate, “I am part of the life of the Universe." Breathing in, marvel, “I am a living soul, an individual." Jiva, meaning “individual soul," also suggests that from the very first breath, you can modify any meditation instructions to suit your unique individuality. For example, if you feel enthusiastic, your celebration phrases could be, “Oh my God! I am alive!"
That is the technique:
RADIANT ONE, THIS EXPERIENCE MAY DAWN BETWEEN TWO BREATHS.
After breath comes in – that is, down – and just before turning out – that is, going up – THE BENEFICENCE. Be aware between these two points, and the happening. When your breath comes in, observe. For a single moment, or a thousandth part of a moment, there is no breathing – before it turns up, before it turns outward. One breath comes in; then there is a certain point and breathing stops. Then the breathing goes out. When the breath goes out, then again for a single moment, or a part of a moment, breathing stops. Then breathing comes in.
Before the breath is turning in or turning out, there is a moment when you are not breathing. In that moment the happening is possible, because when you are not breathing you are not in the world. Understand this: when you are not breathing you are dead; you ARE still, but dead. But the moment is of such a short duration that you never observe it.
For tantra, each outgoing breath is a death and each new breath is a rebirth. Breath coming in is rebirth; breath going out is death. The outgoing breath is synonymous with death; the incoming breath is synonymous with life. So with each breath you are dying and being reborn. The gap between the two is of a very short duration, but keen, sincere observation and attention will make you feel the gap. If you can feel the gap, Shiva says, THE BENEFICENCE. Then nothing else is needed. You are blessed, you have known; the thing has happened.
You are not to train the breath. Leave it just as it is. Why such a simple technique? It looks so simple. Such a simple technique to know the truth? To know the truth means to know that which is neither born nor dies, to know that eternal element which is always. You can know the breath going out, you can know the breath coming in, but you never know the gap between the two.
Try it. Suddenly you will get the point – and you can get it; it is already there. Nothing is to be added to you or to your structure, it is already there. Everything is already there except a certain awareness. So how to do this? First, become aware of the breath coming in. Watch it. Forget everything, just watch breath coming in – the very passage.
When the breath touches your nostrils, feel it there. Then let the breath move in. Move with the breath fully consciously. When you are going down, down, down with the breath, do not miss the breath. Do not go ahead and do not follow behind, just go with it. Remember this: do not go ahead, do not follow it like a shadow; be simultaneous with it.
Breath and consciousness should become one. The breath goes in – you go in. Only then will it be possible to get the point which is between two breaths. It will not be easy. Move in with the breath, then move out with the breath: in-out, in-out.
Buddha tried particularly to use this method, so this method has become a Buddhist method. In Buddhist terminology it is known as Anapanasati Yoga. And Buddha’s enlightenment was based on this technique – only this.
All the religions of the world, all the seers of the world, have reached through some technique or other, and all those techniques will be in these one hundred and twelve techniques. This first one is a Buddhist technique. It has become known in the world as a Buddhist technique because Buddha attained his enlightenment through this technique.
Buddha said, ”Be aware of your breath as it is coming in, going out – coming in, going out.” He never mentions the gap because there is no need. Buddha thought and felt that if you become concerned with the gap, the gap between two breaths, that concern may disturb your awareness. So he simply said, ”Be aware. When the breath is going in move with it, and when the breath is going out move with it. Do simply this: going in, going out, with the breath.” He never says anything about the latter part of the technique.
The reason is that Buddha was talking with very ordinary men, and even that might create a desire to attain the interval. That desire to attain the interval will become a barrier to awareness, because if you are desiring to get to the interval you will move ahead. Breath will be coming in, and you will move ahead because you are interested in the gap which is going to be in the future. Buddha never mentions it, so Buddha’s technique is just half.
But the other half follows automatically. If you go on practicing breath consciousness, breath awareness, suddenly, one day, without knowing, you will come to the interval. Because as your awareness will become keen and deep and intense, as your awareness will become bracketed – the whole world is bracketed out; only your breath coming in or going out is your world, the whole arena for your consciousness – suddenly you are bound to feel the gap in which there is no breath.
When you are moving with breath minutely, when there is no breath, how can you remain unaware? You will suddenly become aware that there is no breath, and the moment will come when you will feel that the breath is neither going out nor coming in. The breath has stopped completely. In that stopping, THE BENEFICENCE.
This one technique is enough for millions. The whole of Asia tried and lived with this technique for centuries. Tibet, China, Japan, Burma, Thailand, Ceylon – the whole of Asia except India has tried this technique. Only one technique and thousands and thousands have attained enlightenment through it. And this is only the first technique.
But unfortunately, because the technique became associated with Buddha’s name, Hindus have been trying to avoid it. Because it became more and more known as a Buddhist method, Hindus have completely forgotten it. And not only that, they have also tried to avoid it for another reason. Because this technique is the first technique mentioned by Shiva, many Buddhists have claimed that this book, VIGYANA BHAIRAVA TANTRA, is a Buddhist book, not a Hindu book.
It is neither Hindu nor Buddhist – a technique is just a technique. Buddha used it, but it was there already to be used. Buddha became a buddha, an enlightened one, because of the technique. The technique preceded Buddha; the technique was already there. Try it. It is one of the most simple techniques – simple compared to other techniques; I am not saying simple for you. Other techniques will be more difficult. That is why it is mentioned as the first technique.