विज्ञानभैरवः ※ Vijñānabhairava ※ Vigyan Bhairav Tantra ※ 奧祕之書
Verse 130 –
Dhāraṇā 104(Lakshmanjoo) / 105(Jaideva Singh) / 105(Paul Reps) / VBT 47(Osho)
भिया सर्वं रवयति सर्वगो व्यापकोऽखिले
इति भैरवशब्दस्य संततोच्चारणाच्छिवः
bhiyā sarvaṁ ravayati sarvago vyāpako’khile
iti bhairavaśabdasya saṁtatoccāraṇācchivaḥ [Lakshmanjoo]
Bhairava is one who with His luminous consciousness makes every thing resound or who being of luminous consciousness joined with kriyāśakti comprehends the whole universe, who gives everything, who pervades the entire cosmos. Therefore by reciting the word Bhairava incessantly one becomes Śiva. [Jaideva Singh]
ENTER THE SOUND OF YOUR NAME AND, THROUGH THIS SOUND, ALL SOUNDS. [Paul Reps · Osho]
Paul Reps對Vijñānabhairava的英譯傾向於意譯乃至詩意化, 這在此句經文尤其明顯. 只有他將需進入的聲音譯解為“your name”──自己的名字. 其他各家皆按原句所示, 因此該聲音即“Bhairava”——Vijñānabhairava篇名所題之神. 也就是說, 需進入與呼喊的聲音為Bhairava此神的尊名.
自Lakshmanjo開始, 幾位註釋者皆對Bhairava這個字的首尾結構作了釋義. Lakshmanjo的解析是Bha—威脅, 恐懼; Ra—尖叫, 喊叫; Va—遍滿, 臨在, 神性意識的臨在. 此技巧的修習者, 當他極其畏怖地高喊「喔, Bhairava, 神啊, 保護我, 我已到盡頭了……」, 正是在這麼強烈且不中斷的情感意志下Bhairava的含義完全彰顯, 修習者蛻變為Bhairava, 任何恐懼皆不復見.
Jaideva Singh對Bhairava一詞有著不盡相同的分析. Bhā是指光, 意識之光; ai象徵活動力; rava有出現在經文裡的ravayati之義, 即領會, 含括. 於是Bhairava可解作「那意識之光結合了活動之力量者領會了全體宇宙即祂自身」. 他又援引了Abhinvavagupta對Bhairava的幾種解釋：宇宙的支持與保護者; 那經常振響偉大梵咒—“I”, 即我—之人; 祂將無畏給予那些對無常輪迴感到恐懼的人們.
Lilian Silburn的註解近似Jaideva Singh, 進一步點明前述的梵咒“I”即梵語的AHAM, 以及Rava是等同於自性覺知的宇宙共振或意識脈動. 這兩位皆強調對Bhairava的呼喊不該變成機械性的頌念, 而要發自內心, 那包括內化的呼吸能量, suṣumna即中脈, 來到dvādaśānta即呼吸能量的含攝點或Brahmarandhra即頂輪, 而與Bhairava合一.
奧修依循Paul Reps的翻譯, 對於進入該聲音是從自己的名字開始談起, 於是此技巧增添了心理層面, 潛意識和自我意識的作用. 接著他提到傳統上會以神的名字來命名, 於是孩子的名字同時成為神對他與家人的揭示. 然後奧修以跋彌仙人, 印度Raga音樂, 乃至部隊行軍, 阿里巴巴寓言為例, 說明了梵咒頌念與聲音能量的精微原理.
भिया सर्वं रवयति
सर्वगो व्यापकोऽखिले ।
bhiyā sarvaṁ ravayati
sarvago vyāpako’khile /
saṁtatoccāraṇācchivaḥ // 130 //
Just find out the meaning of “bhairava“. When you want to find out the meaning of “bhairava“, you have to explain these three letters of “bhairava“: “bha“, “ra“, and “va“. “Bha" means, threat, fear. “Ra" means, screaming, crying, “Va" means, all-pervading, present—-the presence of God consciousness. There you find the presence of God consciousness. When you scream [to God] in fear, God is there.
BRUCE: Does it mean the intensity of that experience?
SWAMIJI: The intensity of that fear. The fear that [causes one to scream)], “O God, protect me! I am finished! I am ruined!"
BRUCE: Why is it at that moment that God consciousness is more accessible?
SWAMIJI: Because when you want It…..when you scream, you want It. It means you are screaming for wanting the support of God. You just scream and God is there.
ERNIE: But then why wouldn’t it be also available to you if you didn’t cry, if you were afraid, but didn’t…..?
SWAMIJI: But you don’t want to have It. There, you don’t want to have It. When you scream [for It], you want to have It. When you cry [for It], you want to have It. There is the urge for having That support. If you don’t scream [for God], there is no urge for having that God to support you.
ERNIE: So really, this is just about fear.
SWAMIJI: Fear, yes.
ERNIE: This technique is just about fear.
SWAMIJI: When you are afraid, He is your refuge.
BRUCE: But you don’t…..it’s not a mental; you do not think that you want Him and then you scream. It’s automatic.
SWAMIJI: No, it is just the explanation of “bhairava“, what is the state of Bhairava. “Bhairava" means, when you are afraid and scream [to Him], He is there. Vyāpakaḥ means, He is pervading, He is there.
Iti bhairava śabdasya, when you find out and when you want to explain, discriminate, the state of Bhairava, this word “bhairava“, samtatoccāraṇāt, in continuity, you will become Bhairava. When you become yourself Bhairava, what fear is there?
This is śāktopāya.
भया सर्वं रवयति सर्वदो व्यापकोऽखिले ।
इति भैरवशब्दस्य सन्ततोच्चारणाच्छिवः ।।१३०।।
Bhayā sarvaṃ ravayati sarvado vyāpako’ khile /
Iti bhairavaśabdasya santatoccāraṇāc chivaḥ // 130
Bhairava is one who with His luminous consciousness makes every thing resound or who being of luminous consciousness joined with kriyāśakti comprehends the whole universe, who gives everything, who pervades the entire cosmos. Therefore by reciting the word Bhairava incessantly one becomes Śiva.
The hermeneutic etymology of the word Bhairava has been given in various ways in Trika philosophy. The important interpretations are given below.
The word ‘Bhairava‘ is composed of four letters——’bhā‘ + ‘ai‘ + ‘ra‘ + ‘va‘ (भा + ऐ + र + व). ‘Bhā‘ + ‘ai‘ (भा + ऐ) by the rule of sandhi (i.e. euphonic junction of final and initial letters) becomes bhai (भै). This bhai together with ‘ra‘, ‘va‘ becomes bhairava (भैरव). Each of these letters connotes certain important ideas.
Bhā (भा) is a word by itself which means light’ i.e. the light of consciousness in this context; ai (ऐ), according to Trika philosophy is symbolic of kriyāśakti (the power of activity); rava connotes ravayati which, in this context, means vimarśati i.e. comprehends. So according to this etymology Bhairava means “He whose light of consciousness joined with his power of activity (‘bhā" + ai i.e. bhai) comprehends (ravayati) the entire universe is His Self".
In Parātriṃśikā, Abhinvavagupta gives another interpretation of Bhairava viz., “Bhairavo bharaṇātmako mahāmantraravātmakaśca" (p.63), i.e. “Bhairava is one who supports and protects the cosmos and (constantly) sounds the great mantra of ‘I’ (aham)."
In Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta gives many interpretations of ‘Bhairava‘ of which the main ones are the following three:
1. He supports the cosmos inasmuch as He makes it appear on Himself as substratum and maintains it and also appears in the form of the cosmos (bhriyate savimarśatayā). This interpretation is based on the root bhṛ which means both dhāraṇa and poṣaṇa i.e. support and maintenance.
2. He constantly sounds the great mantra of ‘I’ (ravarū-pataśca).
3. He offers intrepedity to those who are terrified by the cycle of transmigratory existence (saṃsārabhīruhitakṛt).
Each letter of Bhairava is symbolic of His three main activities: Bha is symbolic of bharaṇa or maintenance of the universe; ra is symbolic of ravaṇa or withdrawal of the universe; va is symbolic of vamana or projection of the or the universe.
The two adjectives of ‘Bhairava‘ viz., sarvadaḥ (bestower of al) and vyāpakaḥ, (all-pervasive) are also connected by implication with two letters of Bhairava, viz., ra and va ; ra is symbolic of the root rā which means to give, to grant, to bestow. He is called sarvadaḥ, because he bestows everything (sarvaṃ rāti) ‘va‘ is symbolic of vā which means ‘to be diffused’. Bhairava is called vyāpaka because of the diffusion of His presence everywhere.
It should be borne in mind that the word uccāra in the verse does not mean mechanical repetition of the word Bhairava. Uccāra in this context denotes the sounding of the interior prāṇaśakti which is the representation of saṃvid or consciousness. This prāṇaśakti rises from the heart (centre) and through suṣumna reaches dvādaśānta or Brahmarandhra where it is united with prakāśa or Bhairava.
This Dhāraṇā is Śāktopāya.
D’après le Parātriśikāvivaraṇa, le Bhairava a pour nature de porter L’univers et consiste en la résonance de la grande formule AHAM, Je. Le Bhairava manifeste le cosmos en émettant la formule de l’énergie créatrice.
According to the Parātriśikāvivaraṇa, the nature of Bhairava is to carry the universe and consists of the resonance of the great formula AHAM, I. Bhairava manifests the cosmos by emitting the formula of creative energy.
L’étymologie la plus profonde se décompose en bhā + ai + rava: Par la lumière de la conscience (bhā = prakāśa), le grand Seigneur pourvu de l’énergie d’activité (ai) fait résonner toute chose (rava): bhā correspond à l’éclat uniforme de la conscience (saṃvid). Ai symbolise la très claire énergie d’activité qu’engendrent, en s’unissant, le transcendant (anuttara), la félicité (ānanda) et la volonté (icchā). Rava, l’universel retentissement ou vibration de la conscience équivaut à la prise de conscience de soi (vimarśa), ce qui met en branle l’activité linguistique, et ravayati est glosé par vimṛśati: il réfléchit toute chose et y réagit dans la lumière infinie de la conscience de soi. Par cette lumière Bhairava pénètre l’univers entier.
The deepest etymology breaks down into bhā + ai + rava: By the light of consciousness (bhā = prakāśa), the great Lord endowed with the energy of activity (ai) makes everything resonate (rava): bhā corresponds to the uniform brightness of consciousness (saṃvid). Ai symbolizes the very clear energy of activity generated by uniting the transcendent (anuttara), bliss (ānanda) and will (icchā). Rava, the universal resonance or vibration of consciousness is equivalent to self-awareness (vimarśa), which sets in motion linguistic activity, and ravayati is glossed by vimṛśati: he reflects everything and reacts to it in the light infinity of self-awareness. Through this light Bhairava penetrates the entire universe.
Réciter le mot Bhairava c’est vivre vraiment ce mot en imaginant de façon intense que le Seigneur chargé de l’énergie d’activité fait tout vibrer grâce à la conscience. C’est reconnaître, en d’autres termes, que prakāśa et vimarśa, la lumière et sa réaction, ne font qu’un.
To recite the word Bhairava is to really live this word by imagining in an intense way that the Lord charged with the energy of activity makes everything vibrate through consciousness. It is to recognize, in other words, that prakāśa and vimarśa, the light and its reaction, are one.
Partout, à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur, se disant constamment et avec une conviction parfaite ‘je suis Bhairava’, on réalise Siva puisqu’il n’y a pas d’état ou Śiva ne réside.
Everywhere, inside and out, constantly saying to oneself and with perfect conviction ‘I am Bhairava’, one realizes Siva since there is no state where Śiva does not reside.
Abhinavagupta et son commentateur Jayaratha donnent trois définitions étymologiques du terme Bhairava selon le sens de la racine bhṛ-: viśvaṃ bibharli: Ⅰ.Ⅱ protège, supporte et nourrit l’univers en le faisant miroiter sur la paroi de son propre Soi. 2. Bharaṇāt ravaṇāt: le Bhairava est celui qui protège en tant que doué de vimarśa reflet, ou rava, écho ainsi expliqué: si vous vous concentrez sur Bhairava, il vous protège et s’il vous protège, vous vous concentrez sur lui. 3. bhīrūṇām ayaṃ hitakri: il donne l’intrépidité à ceux que terrifie le cycle de la transmigration (saṃsāra).
Abhinavagupta and his commentator Jayaratha give three etymological definitions of the term Bhairava according to the meaning of the root bhṛ-: viśvaṃ bibharli: Ⅰ.Ⅱ protects, supports and nourishes the universe by making it sparkle on the wall of its own Self. 2. Bharaṇāt ravaṇāt: Bhairava is the one who protects as endowed with reflective vimarśa, or rava, echo thus explained: if you focus on Bhairava, he protects you and if he protects you, you focus on him. 3. bhīrūṇām ayaṃ hitakri: it gives fearlessness to those terrified by the cycle of transmigration (saṃsāra).
Le Très-formidable (mahābhīma) qui détruit l’agitation de la transmigration devient un Bhairava.
The Most formidable (mahābhīma) who destroys the agitation of transmigration becomes a Bhairava.
Uccāra comme il a été dit ne doit pas être confondu avec une simple récitation; c’est le fonctionnement du souffle intériorisé qui accompagne l’unité de la conscience gravitant toute vers le seul Bhairava au sens le plus profond du terme.
Uccāra as it has been said should not be confused with a simple recitation; it is the functioning of the internalized breath which accompanies the unity of the consciousness gravitating all towards the only Bhairava in the deepest sense of the term.
Partant du cæur, l’énergie vitale monte dans la voie médiane (madhya) jusqu’au dvādaśānta et, grâce à cette réalisation (parāmarśa), on s’identifie à Śiva, l’universel Bhairava.
Starting from the heart, the vital energy ascends in the middle path (madhya) to dvādaśānta and, through this realization (parāmarśa), one identifies with Śiva, the universal Bhairava.
Le nom bhairava est le plus noble parmi les noms de la divinité. On peut le réciter jusqu’à perdre le sentiment du monde extérieur. Il se présente donc en lui-même comme une voie qui conduit à Paramaśiva.
The name bhairava is the noblest among the names of the deity. You can recite it until you lose your sense of the outside world. It therefore presents itself as a path that leads to Paramaśiva.
Bhairava is one with your radiant consciousness; singing the name of Bhairava, one becomes Shiva.
bhayā sarvaṁ ravayati sarvago vyāpako ‘khile |
iti bhairava śabdasya saṁtatoccāraṇāc chivaḥ || 130 ||
bhayaa-sarvam ravayati sarvadah vi-aa-pakah a-khile
iti bhairava-shabdasya santatah ud-chaaranaat shivah
When fear rises during meditation, welcome it, feel into it. Enter the vibratory world of sensations underneath that emotion.
Many of our thoughts during meditation have their origin in what we are afraid will happen. Most of the uncomfortable emotions and sensations you feel during meditation have some connection with fear, anxiety, or nervousness. This is not to be denied. Loving opens us up to loss. If we go for it in any arena and follow our passions, we put ourselves at risk. We can learn to make fear our friend.
The name of this text is the Vijnana Bhairava Tantra. Bhairava has many, many meanings, including “terrific"—-the aspect of universal consciousness that accepts our terror as prayer and opens the door to revelation. Contemplating infinity can lead to terror and ecstasy at the same time. Meeting the soul is terrifying.
Therefore, terror is not shameful; it is to be embraced. Terror can be subtle, as in the recognition that life is short and you have to get on with what you are here to do and experience. The alarm goes off and propels us to wake up and seek God. Every human emotion, every impulse, is an opportunity to awaken to the immediacy of life.
Several meditations are suggested here. One could be to meditate with the phrase bhaya sarvam, “everyone is afraid." (Bhaya, “fear, alarm, dread, dismay." Sarva, “all, whole, entire, everyone.") Suns are probably afraid when the time comes for them to die. Who knows?
Another meditation is to use bhairava as a mantra, and be aware of the vast range of meanings such as, “God is here, inside my fear" and “The universe is indeed vast and terrifying, and yet permeated by a friendly consciousness. I am intimate with that One."
The trembling we feel in terror is a vibration in our bodies. Every cell is buzzing. Listen to this sound rising up from the depths of your being.
The last sound technique:
ENTER THE SOUND OF YOUR NAME AND, THROUGH THIS SOUND, ALL SOUNDS.
Your own name can be used as a mantra very easily, and it is very helpful because your name has gone very deep into your unconsciousness. Nothing else has gone so deep. If we are all sitting here, and we all fall asleep and someone comes and calls “Ram," no one will listen except the person whose name is Ram. He will listen to it; he will be disturbed in his sleep. No one else will listen to the sound “Ram," but why does this man listen? It has gone down deep; it is not conscious now, it has become unconscious.
Your name has gone very deep within you, but there is a very beautiful phenomenon about your name: you never call it, others call it. Others use it; you never use it.
I have heard that in the first world war, for the first time in America rationing was created. Thomas Edison was a very great scientist, but he was very poor so he had to stand in the queue for his ration card. And he was such a great man that no one ever used his name before him. There was no need to use his name for himself, and no one else would use his name because he was so much respected. Everyone would call him Professor, so he had forgotten what was his name.
He was standing in the queue, and when his name was called, when it was asked who Thomas Alva Edison was, he just stared blankly. Again the name was called, then someone who was a neighbor to Edison said to him, “Why are you standing? Your name is being called. It is your name, Professor." Then he became aware and he said, “But how can I recognize it? No one calls me Edison. It has been so long… they just call me Professor."
You never use your own name. Only others use it – you have heard it used by others. But it has gone deep, very deep. It has penetrated like an arrow into your unconscious. If you yourself use it, then it becomes a mantra. And for two reasons it helps: one, when you use your own name, if your name is “Ram" and you use “Ram, Ram, Ram…", suddenly you feel as if you are using someone else’s name – as if it is not yours. Or if you feel that this IS yours, you feel that there is a separate entity within you which is using it. It may belong to the body, it may belong to the mind, but he who is calling ”Ram, Ram…” becomes a witness.
You have always called others’ names. When you call your own name it looks as if it belongs to someone else, not to you, and it is a very revealing phenomenon. You can become a witness to your own name, and with the name your whole life is involved. Separated from the name, you are separated from your whole life. And this name has penetrated deep within you because everyone has called you this from your very birth, you have always heard this. So use this sound, and with this sound you can go to the very depths to which the name has gone.
In the old days we gave everyone a name of God – everyone. Someone was Ram, someone was Narayan, someone was Krishna, someone was Vishnu, or something like that. They say all the Mohammedan names are the names of God – ALL the Mohammedan names! And all over the world that was the practice, to give a name which is really a name of God.
This was for good reasons. One reason was this technique – because if your name can be used as a mantra it will serve you a double purpose. It will be YOUR name – and you have heard it so much, so many times, and all your life it has penetrated deep. Then also, it is the name of God. So go on repeating it inside, and suddenly you will become aware that ”This name is different from me.” Then by and by this name will have a sanctity of its own. You will remember any day that “Narayan" or “Ram," this is God’s name. Your name has turned into a mantra.
Use it! This is very good! You can try many things with your name. If you want to be awakened at five o’clock in the morning, no alarm is so exact as your own name. Just repeat thrice inside, “Ram, you have to be awake by five o’clock sharp." Repeat it three times, and then just fall asleep. You will be awakened at five o’clock because “Ram," YOUR name, is very deep in the unconscious.
Call your name and tell yourself that “At five o’clock in the morning, let me be awakened." Someone will awaken you. And if you continue this practice, one day you will suddenly realize that at five o’clock someone calls you and says, “Ram, be awake." That is your unconscious calling you.
This technique says, ENTER THE SOUND OF YOUR NAME AND, THROUGH THIS SOUND, ALL SOUNDS. Your name becomes just a door for all names. But enter the sound. First, when you repeat “Ram, Ram, Ram…" it is just a word. But it means something when you go on repeating “Ram, Ram, Ram….."
You must have heard the story of Valmiki. He was given this mantra “Ram," but he was an ignorant man – uneducated, simple, innocent, childlike. He started repeating “Ram, Ram, Ram…..” but he was repeating so much that he forgot completely and reversed the whole thing. Instead he was chanting “Mara, Mara….." He was chanting “Ram, Ram, Ram….." so fast that it became “Mara, Mara, Mara….." And he achieved the goal through “Mara, Mara, mara….."
If you go on repeating the name fast inside, soon it will not be a word: it will become a sound, just meaningless. And then there is no difference between Ram and Mara—-no difference! Whether you call Ram or Mara, it makes no sense, they are not words. It is just the sound, just the sound that matters. Enter the sound of your name. Forget the meaning of it, just enter the sound. Meaning is with the mind, sound is with the body. Meaning is in the head, sound spreads all over the body. So forget the meaning. Just repeat it as a meaningless sound, and through this sound you will enter all sounds. This sound will become the door to all sounds. And “all sounds" means all that exists.
This is one of the basic tenets of Indian inner search, that the basic unit of the existence is sound and not electricity. Modern science says that the basic unit of the existence is electricity, not sound, but they also say that sound is a form of electricity. Indians, however, have always been saying that electricity is nothing but a form of sound.
You may have heard that through a particular RAGA, a particular sound, fire can be created. It can be created—-because this is the Indian idea, that sound is the basis of all electricity. So if you hit sound in a particular frequency, electricity will be created.
On long bridges, if a military, is passing, they are not allowed to march because many times it has happened that because of their march the bridge falls. It is because of sound, not because of their weight. They will be passing anyhow, but if they pass marching, then the particular sound of their feet breaks the bridge.
In old Hebrew history, the city of Jericho was very protected by great walls and it was impossible to break those walls by guns. But through a particular sound the walls were broken, and that sound was the secret of the breaking of those walls. If that sound is created before walls, the walls will give way.
You have heard the story of Ali Baba: a particular sound and the rock moves. These are allegories. Whether they are right or not, one thing is certain: if you can create a particular sound so continuously that meaning is lost, mind is lost, the rock at your heart will be removed.