བློ་སྦྱོང ─ 修心八頌與修心七要



བློ་སྦྱོང་

藏語拼音Lojong, 字母拼寫blo sbyong, 漢譯為修心.

修心傳承在西藏是由阿底峽(Atisha)開始的. 阿底峽生於現今的孟加拉, 是波羅王朝善勝王的二子. 他從少年時期開始拜師求法, 某年於菩提伽耶繞塔轉經時聽到兩尊佛像在他頭頂對話“欲速證等覺悟,汝當何修?”答曰,“慈仁悲憫的菩提之心。” 另有一薄伽梵佛雕像告訴他“托缽僧啊,如果你想迅速修成正覺,要修以愛、慈悲和菩提心。”

阿底峽曾隨三位上師學習修心—-慈氏瑜伽(Maitriyogin), 法鎧(Dharmarakshita), 金洲法稱(Dharmakirti). 尤以住在現今印尼蘇門答臘的金洲法稱, 阿底峽在其身邊12年, 習得的經論法門包括寂天所傳的《入菩薩行論》與自他交換. 返回印度後他擔任超戒寺的上座8年, 隨之在西藏古格王朝智光王的迎請下入藏傳法, 藏地原本雜亂的顯密二教得以融會與重振.

阿底峽在西藏的歷代弟子將他的菩提心修法整理成許多典籍, 如種敦巴的《要門八座法》, 康巴隆巴的《修心八座法》, 朗日塘巴的《修心八頌》, 夏沃岡巴的《花色小冊》, 切喀瓦的《修心七要》, 巴貢的《修菩提心論》等。

菩提心源於慈悲喜捨, 而這四無量心起自出離心和道心, 與道心相對的則是大多數時候居於主宰的凡心.

接下來的週日我想多談的是《修心八頌》和《修心七要》. 不過真正能談的其實只有自己的心. 而我知道, 在那地方仍藏有許多荒蕪.



《修心八頌》

    第1,2頌

「吾祝諸有情 超勝如意寶 成辦殊勝利 恆時願顧惜」
「隨處人結交 視己最卑俗 真誠予他人 最極之珍愛」

「我於虛空如母眾 視之猶勝如意寶 依彼能成究竟利 恆常心懷珍愛惜」
「任與誰等會聚時 思己較諸他人卑 從心深處視眾生 恆常尊他為最勝」

修心八頌第1,2頌的兩種漢譯.

捷運車廂內, 早餐店玻璃門外, 每天在眼前經過與擦身而過的那些人們, 你能將之視為珍寶, 恆久愛惜嗎?
我做不到…..即便偶而會偷偷試試.
至少這點是確定的: 以整個存在的角度, 每一個人都有可能達成或促成那最終的發生. 不正是如此, 同為有情眾生的你我, 才有資格躋身這追尋的旅程?
然而, 總是期望從別人那裡得到什麼, 又擔心別人從自己這裡拿走什麼, 這是很慣性出現的心理狀態.
當事情來到相識或有所關聯之人, 那就更難了.
例如當你覺得自身已從劇場進階到舞踏,並且深切認識到舞踏的究竟,這時你該如何看待過去劇場界的友人,其他舞踏工作者,包括同是大野一雄和大野慶人的學生? 或者若你已去到印度的城鄉與山野,感受了奧修出生,修行,成道,傳法,逝世各階段的能量,也對奧修靜心從動態亢達里尼到奧祕之書都能融貫起來,那麼你還能怎麼與其他對此無感的奧修門徒相處? 怎麼接受那些雖是資深卻沒有同等領會的靜心帶領者,以及認同這些帶領者的朋友?
然而, 終究是得走出這被幻夢束縛住的困境. 也的確, 只有在任何人面前都將自己放在較低的位置, 真誠地尊重對方,才有可能走得出去—-即便那一天看似遙遠無期.
也許就如達賴喇嘛引《入菩薩行論》鼓勵我們的話: 時間久了,沒什麼不能適應, 不能改變過來.
但我還是忍不住想埋怨一下, 是誰說靜心很容易的呢?

修心八頌第1,2頌

修心八頌 第1,2頌




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    第3頌

「觀察諸行持 心生煩惱時 不利自他故 強行願遮除」

「一切行為察自心 若有煩惱才生時 有損自他兩利故 迎面猛力令回退」

「動靜觀自心 煩惱初萌生 危害自他時 願疾斥令除」

修心八頌第3頌的三種漢譯.

對於一自私自我之人, 從自心帶起的煩惱苦難會是最難越過的關卡.
各種關乎自身的慾望和恐懼, 都因為自己裡面那些超出一般人的設定而加重加深.
諸此對於好壞,成敗,進退的取捨, 更會延伸到被他認定的, 所謂的自己人身上.
於是作為這種人的家人和伙伴, 也許永遠無法理解他的心思: 他是否有在關心? 是否值得信任? 明天他還會在這裡, 陪伴著我們嗎? 他所能帶來的真的是一種美好嗎? 或者只是幻滅, 破壞, 再加些惆悵?
而他對他們, 對這整個世界, 也總是浮現同樣的疑問. 當然, 也包括對他自己.

幾位上師對此頌的解說, 皆強調佛法和空性智慧的即時對治, 是可達到‘強行遮除’, ‘迎面猛力回退’, ‘疾斥令除’的關鍵. 奧修靜心從動態, 亢達里尼一直到內觀, 回光, 古印密宗法門等等, 絕對能在這地方發揮最大的作用.
不過這部分, 此刻是談不上了, 往後再說吧.

修心八頌第3頌

修心八頌 第3頌




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    第4,5,6頌

「性惡之眾生 屈就猛烈苦 見時如意寶 難得願愛重」
「於我因妒嫉 他人責謗等 願取非理虧 勝利供奉他」
「凡吾所利濟 寄望之對象 縱非理損害 願視為善土」

「若遇本性惡有情 為猛惡業苦逼迫 願我惜彼如寶藏 以其最為難獲遇」
「若有他人因嫉妒 作毀罵等非理行 任何虧失自取受 任何得勝讓他人」
「若有何人我希望 能報恩惠饒益我 反做無理損害時 視為最勝善知識」

「性惡之有情 猛烈罪苦迫 見時如遇寶 難得願珍惜」
「他人以妒心 非理謗辱我 惡言我取受 勝利願獻他」
「吾昔益某人 並曾寄厚望 彼雖妄加害 視如善知識」

修心八頌第4,5,6頌的三種漢譯.

壞人,敵人的惡行, 縱使我們會有直接強烈的反應, 相對來說是較能放下的. 畢竟傳統宗教和道德教育與此相關的訓示並不算少見.
然而對於自己曾寄予厚望, 十分重視, 甚至鍾愛之人的辜負或背離, 恐怕就是更難越過的關卡了. 這應該就是為什麼社會版各種新聞從未停止出現過.
自我之所以難解, 是因為它遠比大眾熟知的面貌更為多變與糾纏. 它既能藏在深處, 又會枝藤蔓生.
不過解開它的關鍵也仍是自己. 即便是生病時只懂得找醫生的人, 也需要他有能力去到醫院, 並且願意乖乖吃藥.
如果我們現在談的是一位靜心者, 同時還是藝術工作者, 這種病就真的無人可醫, 只能自求多褔了.
所幸這在奧修世界裡是相當普遍乃至受到認可的情況. 我也有幸與一位出自此類型卻能充分淨化, 散發愛與芬芳的資深門徒結識多年.
所以, 說不定……“見時如遇寶”, “勝利願獻他”, “視如善知識”, 我也是有機會的?

修心八頌第4,5,6頌

修心八頌 第4,5,6頌




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    第7頌

「直接與間接 利樂施眾生 害損痛苦等 秘密願自取」

「如實真實供眾母 一切利樂帶給彼 母之煩惱與痛苦 我願悄然來承受」

「直接間接諸利樂 願集奉獻如母眾 如母有情眾苦迫 我願暗中盡取受」

修心八頌第7頌的三種漢譯.

這一頌直接點出施受和自他交換, 為慈悲心與菩提心的修持立基. 菩提心有兩個層次, 從前頌至此所談的是世俗菩提心, 末頌是勝義菩提心, 兩個層面合起來後的完整菩提心即大乘佛教的要義.
不僅是我吧, 大多數人讀到此頌的第一個念頭應該是:「這怎麼可能做得到?」然而, 上師們說即便只是去想像, 那些心理作用也能累積出實質的改變.
暗自地, 間接地, 慢慢地……若是能這樣開始, 感覺就沒那麼困難了. 母親是人生最初的情結, 很可能也含括了往後的全部. 緩步趨向與強烈牽引的交互運作下, 原本荒僻的小徑好像就出現了更多交會, 始終孤遠的身影也彷彿懂得了更多承擔.
不過, 這一切肯定都還是緩緩地, 蜿蜒地, 不為人知地移動與變化著. 然而正是這樣才有可能, 不是嗎?
此時我想起了Plotinus的“flight of the alone to the alone”. 原來如此, alone既是alone, 又是oneness.
奧修用過Plotinus這句話作為書名. 那是1972年3月25日至4月2日, 他在Mt. Abu帶領靜心營時的演說輯錄, 講的是Kaivalya奧義書.

修心八頌第7頌

修心八頌 第7頌




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    第8頌

「波等不沾染 八法分別垢 心知法如幻 不耽願離繫」

「心識不受名垢染 由此關切八逝法 自知一切為幻影 破枷無執得自由」

「願所行不受 八法念垢染 知法如幻智 無執而解脫」

修心八頌第8頌的三種漢譯.

八法, 或八風——衰, 利, 毀, 譽, 稱, 譏, 苦, 樂, 即自我所遇到的得失損益; 身心的逼迫和悅適; 因其喜惡而在對象面前或自己內心所作的推崇和輕慢.
此八風不停在煽動, 且纏繞而難以認清. 格西阿旺達吉將之描述為黑, 白, 黑白混色三層. 當這些情感生起, 是因為執著於此生的快樂, 並有著自我珍愛的態度和緊抓一個真實存在的我時, 它是黑色的. 當它們生起時並沒有這種執著, 但仍然有著後兩種動機, 它是黑白混色的. 當這些情感生起, 既沒有對此生快樂的執著, 也沒有珍愛自我, 而只是因為緊抓一個真實存在的我時, 它是白色的.
人的一生總是過度反應此八法,從而失去了平衡。即便開始修行後,也還是混雜著對這八法的關切,形成一種如孩童般不成熟的心態…..聽起來有點像奧修門徒, 對吧?
然而, 這一偈同時也告訴我們, 這八風是虛幻的, 如幻影一般, 空無一物.
因此整篇修心八頌是方便與智慧雙運的修持法門. 方便是指培養愛心和慈悲的利他態度, 智慧則是瞭解一切現象皆空, 並無實質存在.
走在奧修的道路上, 我們能否以這空性的智慧來做動態, 亢達里尼, 味帕沙那, 奧祕之書, 和白袍, 於是瞭解到各靜心每一個步驟所蘊藏的要領與含義?
更困難的是…..至少我個人是如此…..在我們無所顧忌, 不受制約地追求自我之際, 也能領會到慈悲心, 菩提心等利他的情感層面?
事實上, 奧修是大寶法王承認的活佛轉世, 可以說是超越西藏傳統的靈性存在. 因此承接了奧修能量的我們, 絕對是非常幸運, 非常有可能的.
無論是什麼樣的門徒, 走在什麼樣的路上, 仍然都得回到時時刻刻的自心. 我想, 這也就是回到了達賴喇嘛的呼籲:
「我請求大家,呼籲大家:盡一切力量培養慈悲心、愛心和恭敬心,分擔其他衆生的痛苦,對其他衆生的痛苦多一分關懷,自私心要少一些。不管你是不是信仰上帝,不管你是不是信仰佛陀,這些都不重要。重要的是:在日常生活中,要有一顆善良的心、溫暖的心,這才是生命的原則。」

修心八頌第8頌

修心八頌 第8頌





《修心七要》

第一要 前行

先學諸加行

修心七要第一要, 合1頌. 這裡選用的漢譯是卻殿仁波切的講經譯句.

西藏佛教在前弘期就有修心法門, 不過是到阿底峽後才形成一嚴整的傳承. 阿底峽曾隨金洲法稱12年之久, 主要修習內容即為菩提心, 其法要精髓出自《入菩薩行論》,《集菩薩學論》, 和《寶鬘論》等經典.
阿底峽在藏地最重要的傳人是仲敦巴, 他奠定了噶當派的創建核心. 仲敦巴有博多瓦, 金厄瓦, 普瓊瓦三大弟子. 博多瓦一系有朗日塘巴和夏惹瓦, 後者則由切卡瓦承繼. 菩提心法即在此師徒間一路相承, 並累積了許多修心典籍, 如仲敦巴的《要門八座法》, 博多瓦的《修心絮語》, 康巴隆巴的《修心八座法》, 夏沃岡巴的《花色小冊》, 巴貢的《菩提心論》. 先前數週介紹的《修心八頌》是朗日塘巴所造, 本週開始的《修心七要》則是切卡瓦. 由於切卡瓦的發願, 此修心之教授才得以在大眾中廣泛流傳.
奧修在1979年2月11日至3月10日間解說了修心七要, 之後輯成“The Book of Wisdom”, 探索出版社有中譯本《智慧的書》.

加行即預習, 預先的準備. 在修習菩提心前需要做哪些準備呢?
如果我能提供一些想法的話, “身定”確實是重要的, 也就是進入身體, 身體在動靜中的相應姿態, 在身體各部位和身體裡面的能量流動. 在這方面有不少傳統功法值得參考, 例如七支坐法, 易筋經, 太極拳架與導引等等.
作為奧修門徒則是一個絕佳的機會, 可以將此身定覺知帶進動態, 亢達里尼, 味帕沙那等靜心的各步驟之中.
回到藏傳上師的正統教導—–人身難得, 死歿無常, 思惟業果, 輪迴過患.
再來看看奧修在“The Book of Wisdom”裡, 他所說的加行是這三點:
Truth is.
Mind is the barrier.
No-Mind is the door.
此處的No-Mind, 奧修說那就是Bodhichitta—–菩提心:

“Atisha calls no-mind BODHICHITTA: that is his word for no-mind. It can be translated as buddha-mind, buddha-consciousness, too. Or if you like you can call it christ-consciousness, krishna-consciousness. It doesn’t make any difference what name is used, but the basic quality of bodhichitta is that it is no-mind. It looks paradoxical: the mind in the state of no-mind. But the meaning is very clear: mind without content, mind without thoughts, is what is meant, is what is indicated.
Remember the word bodhichitta, because Atisha says the whole effort of religion, the
whole science of religion, is nothing but an endeavor to create bodhichitta, buddha-
consciousness: a mind which functions as a no-mind, a mind which dreams no more,
thinks no more, a mind which is just awareness, pure awareness.”

修心七要 第一要

修心七要 第一要




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第二要 正行

眾過歸於一 思眾皆有恩 取捨間雜修 先從自身取 彼二乘風修
境毒善各三 總攝復得教 為不忘念彼 威儀盡誦持 得定間應密
視諸法如夢 應觀無生性 對治自然解 道體住賴耶 中間如幻士

修心七要第二要。
另有一種較為流通的漢譯,與奧修採用的英譯版本次序相符。

思諸法如夢 觀心性無生
對治亦自解 道體住賴耶
中間修幻化 雜修二取捨
彼二乘風息 三境毒善根
諸威儀誦持 取次從自起

此要所談的是勝義和世俗兩種菩提心,前者為智慧,後者即慈悲。
「思諸法如夢 觀心性無生」在Vijñānabhairava——奧修稱之為Vigyan Bhairav Tantra,隨後出版為“The Book of Secrets”,中譯本“奧祕之書”與譚崔經典”——裡是其核心意識。奧祕之書的匯編和印度古密宗與佛教的互動兩者時程大略吻合。及至阿底峽和他的初代弟子們所造的這些修心論頌,讀來也是有如奧祕之書一句一法門的感受。
阿賴耶識能執取諸法種子,當靜心很深入時約略能觸及到。但如奧修所說,許多時候我們會再度被拋回這俗世,而當時的入口已然消失無蹤。這一點造論者也很貼心地設想到了,因此有「中間如幻士」——個人是覺得此譯更切要一些。
「眾過歸於一 思眾皆有恩」來到慈悲的境界,總是頓時令我啞口無言。「取捨間雜修」取是取受世間眾生的苦難,捨是捨予己心而出的喜樂。以上若僅當作道德或行為準則,那麼不是永遠無法達到,就是過於勉強而失真。所以需「彼二乘風息」:以呼吸來運行此取捨。
假如將「風」和「息」分開來看待,我又會聯結到奧祕之書那幾個關於呼吸的法門了。
但我所擁有的只是如此一顆凡心,總是流轉在愛戀執求,憎惡摒斥,漠然無視之中。然而這三種毒境亦能蛻變成善境,那就需要在每一個行為舉止間,念念不忘地修持這些法要。
在談修心七要的講述系列裡,奧修是經過數日回答提問後再從「取次從自起」開始講起。之前提到面對世間眾生時的取捨以及所乘的風息,首先即應從自身來實行。
讀到某個法會中,有人質問一位至喜瑪拉雅山閉關十幾年的比丘尼是在逃避現實。這位比丘尼回應其實是你們才有辦法逃避,躲入電視電影,跟人講話,各種得以分心且麻木自己的方式中。而我獨自在冰天雪地的深山裡,當痛苦襲來,我除了直視自己的心,還能躲去哪裡呢?
奧修也是這麼告訴我們的:不要扔棄這痛苦,而是吸收它,飲入它,歡迎它,消化然後轉變它。

“The first thing to do is close your doors and stop any kind of occupation — looking at the tv, listening to the radio, reading a book. Stop all occupation, because that too is a subtle drug. Just be silent, utterly alone. Don’t even pray, because that again is a drug, you are becoming occupied, you start talking to God, you start praying, you escape from yourself.
Atisha is saying: Just be yourself. Whatsoever the pain of it and whatsoever the suffering of it, let it be so. First experience it in its total intensity. It will be difficult, it will be heart-rending. You may start crying like a child, you may start rolling on the ground in deep pain, your body may go through contortions. You may suddenly become aware that the pain is not only in the heart, it is all over the body — that it is aching all over, that it is painful all over, that your whole body is nothing but pain.
If you can experience it — this is of tremendous importance — then start absorbing it.
Don’t throw it away. It is such a valuable energy, don’t throw it away. Absorb it, drink it, accept it, welcome it, feel grateful to it. And say to yourself, “This time I’m not going to avoid it, this time I’m not going to reject it, this time I’m not going to throw it away. This time I will drink it and receive it like a guest. This time I will digest it."
It may take a few days for you to be able to digest it, but the day it happens, you have stumbled upon a door which will take you really far far away. A new journey has started in your life, you are moving into a new kind of being — because immediately, the moment you accept the pain with no rejection anywhere, its energy and its quality changes. It is no longer pain. In fact one is simply surprised, one cannot believe it, it is so incredible. One cannot believe that suffering can be transformed into ecstasy, that pain can become joy.”

修心七要 第二要

修心七要 第二要




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第三要 轉惡緣為道用

罪滿情器間 違緣轉道用 遇緣即修習 四行勝方便

報應皆歸我 修一切大恩
亂境觀四身 空護為最上
四行勝方便 隨現遇而修

修心七要第三要。這裡所引兩種漢譯出處依序為卻殿仁波切的解經以及開藏老和尚的講道。
目前見到的修心七要原藏文版本亦有兩種。12世紀的切卡瓦依循百年來阿底峽的傳承造出此修心篇章,然後是他的首要弟子將其歸納出七個要點。三百年後,又經過一位西藏重要學者加以彙整和解說。單以第三要來看,早先的版本是上面第一種漢譯的前兩句加上第二種漢譯合計八頌,後出的版本則再加三句共11頌。
卻殿仁波切所講的經句與第二個藏文版本有些許相合之處。第一個版本流傳較廣,奧修也是採用它的英譯。

還談不到此“罪滿情器間”的五濁惡世,光是面對生老病死,以及己心的散亂掉舉,就常常覺得活不下去了。我佛確實體恤受苦之人,不僅提供佛法僧三庇護,連“空”都能讓我們援引為最殊勝的防護與護持。
“空“的深化和實現建立在四身與四行。嘉察仁波切解釋四身是本質為空之法身,一切境相顯相之化身,法身空性和化身明性明空不二之報身,法報化三身不二之自性身。
奧修所說的有些不同,自然也較生動。他談到法身的法即一切皆空,如果你真的想要得到保護與增長,就必須讓自己沈浸於此空見,在你週圍長出此空身;安住於一切皆空之法身後,創造造化之化身就會自行升起,慈悲也將初現;而自化身中將會結晶出報身,此時慈悲與喜樂是永恒的,不受任何條件與情況的限制;最後到了自性身,所有的分別都消失,所有的二元對立都被超越,這是真正需要達成的存在之身。這四種身體是每位追尋真理之人都會通過的。
奧修所講的四行是觀察,分析,選擇,行捨。仁波切則說累積資糧,淨除罪障,布施鬼神,供養護法。在第一要的前行時他還講到觀想並祈請上師,與心中的光點融合在一起。雖然奧修超越了傳統,但資質愚鈍如我的奧修門徒仍應好好重視傳統的教導,有了穩固的根基才能真正攀登到奧修的高度,體會他的深義。

奧修在解釋“隨現遇而修”時舉了葛吉夫的例子。葛吉夫的父親在臨終時對當時九歲的他說,每當有人侮辱你時,告訴對方接下來你會冥想24個小時,然後再給他回應。開藏老和尚也喜歡這個故事。
在解說“修一切大恩”時奧修則提了另個有些相似的例子,是關於佛陀和阿難,我想將它摘錄在底下:

“A man once came and spat on Buddha, on his face. Of course his disciples were enraged.
His closest disciple, Ananda, said to him, “This is too much!" He was red-hot with anger.
He said to Buddha, “Just give me permission so that I can show this man what he has
done."
Buddha wiped his face and said to the man, “Thank you, sir. You created a context in
which I could see whether I can still be angry or not. And I am not, and I am
tremendously happy. And also you created a context for Ananda: now he can see that he can still be angry. Many thanks, we are so grateful! Once in a while, please, you are invited to come. Whenever you have the urge to spit on somebody, you can come to us."
It was such a shock to the man, he could not believe his ears, what was happening. He had come expecting that he would anger Buddha. He had failed. The whole night he could not sleep, he tossed and turned and could not sleep. Continuously the idea haunted him — his spitting on the Buddha, one of the most insulting things, and Buddha remaining as calm and quiet as he had been before, as if nothing had happened, wiping his face and saying to him, “Thank you, sir. And whenever you have this desire to spit on somebody, please come to us."
He remembered it again and again. That face, that calm and quiet face, those
compassionate eyes. And when he had said thank you, it had not been just a formality, he was really grateful. His whole being was saying that he was grateful, his whole atmosphere was grateful. Just as he could see that Ananda was red-hot with anger, Buddha was so cool, so loving, so compassionate. He could not forgive himself now, what had he done? Spitting on that man — a man like Buddha!
Early the next morning he rushed back, fell down at the feet of Buddha, and said,
“Forgive me, sir. I could not sleep the whole night."
Buddha said, “Forget all about it. There is no need to ask forgiveness for something
which has already passed. So much water has gone down the Ganges." Buddha was
sitting on the bank of the Ganges under a tree. He showed the man, “Look, each moment so much water is flowing down! Twenty-four hours have passed — why are you carrying it, something which is no longer existential? Forget all about it.
“And I cannot forgive you, because in the first place I was not angry with you. If I had
been angry, I could have forgiven you. If you really need forgiveness, ask Ananda. Fall at his feet — he will enjoy it!"

修心七要 第三要

修心七要 第三要




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第四要 總論一生實修

攝教授心要 應修五種力 大乘往生法 五力重威儀

總攝教授心 應修習五力

修心七要第四要的兩種漢譯。
傳統對此要的解說,將五力分為今生修持和臨終修持兩種。“往生法”又譯為“死教言”。
今生是牽引力,串習力,不厭足力,定除我執力,祈願力。臨終是善種子力,發願力,消除我執力,發心牽引力,串習力。不厭足力與善種子力內涵基本相同,其他同名各力亦然。或許這五力在兩種時刻不同的先後順序是值得注意的地方。
善種子力在“The Book of Wisdom”裡稱作The force of white seeds。第二要中出現過的阿賴耶識又名一切種子識。種子薰習說出現於經量部,瑜伽行唯識學派將其發展成熟。至寂護形成瑜伽行中觀學派,並隨著他的入藏,此學即成藏傳佛教的根基。
威儀可解釋成行為,重要的是在生命裡實踐這五力。另外它也是姿勢舉止之義,我們應在行住坐臥中善加留意,調整出足以修心得法,蓄積五力的身印身型。
關鍵還是在於決心吧····是否真的渴望?是否真的願意為了真理而付出自己?
在許多演說裡奧修都使用了沸點這個譬喻:

“If you dance, dance so totally that the dancer disappears and only the dance remains, and it will be a transformation. If you love, love totally, so totally that there is no lover found. The lover is found only if you are holding something back. That which you are holding back becomes the lover. If you are holding something back, that which you are holding back becomes the dancer, the singer. If you are totally in the dance, in the song, in the love, who is left behind there to say, “I am the lover, I am the dancer"? Nothing is left. And totality transforms.
It is only at one hundred degrees intensity that one evaporates from the material into the spiritual, from the earth into the sky, from the ordinary into the extraordinary."

修心七要 第四要

修心七要 第四要




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第五要 修心標準

諸法歸一要 二証取其主 常懷喜悅心 修量即遣執 修成具五相 散能即修淨

諸法攝一要 二證取上首
恆當依歡喜 散能住即成

修心七要第五要的兩種漢譯。「修量即遣執 修成具五相」確實出現在第二種藏文版本裡,目前尚未見到哪位上師相應的解說。
於己心常懷喜悅,於他境恆依歡喜。華嚴經有十地,通常被列為菩薩位階,其中第一地就是歡喜地。奧修在“The Discipline of Transcendence”, Vol 4(新版書名為“Dancing in the Breeze”)裡重新詮釋這十地,他說佛陀真正的意思是:除非你是喜悅的,你將永遠到達不了真理。
或許正是因為喜悅,才有辦法「散能住即成」—-即便散亂失序,即便惡緣逆境突然發生,你仍持穩於靜心的能量中,仍持續在修心的道路上。
奧修對「二証取其主」作了長篇豐富的論說。除了他證自證而以後者為重的一般解釋外,奧修還舉出更高一層的涵義,那是從法門,禪法到悟道,證道的過程:

“There is another meaning to this sutra too. The other meaning is, first witness the objects of the mind. This is a higher meaning than the first. Witness the objects of the mind. Patanjali calls it dhyana, meditation — from the same word come zen and CH’AN. Witness the objects, the contents, of the mind. Whatsoever passes before you, watch it, without evaluating, judging or condemning. Don’t be for or against, just watch, and dhyana, meditation, is created.
And the second is, witness the witness itself — and samadhi is created, satori is created, the ultimate ecstasy is created. The first leads to the second. Start watching your thoughts but don’t stop there. When thoughts have disappeared then don’t think that you have arrived. One more thing has to be done, one more step. Now watch the watcher. Now just witness the witnessing. Nothing else is left, only you are. Just suddenly become aware of awareness itself, and then dhyana is transformed into samadhi. By watching the mind, the mind disappears. By watching the witness, the witness expands and becomes universal.
The first is a negative step to get rid of the mind. The second is a positive step to get
rooted in the ultimate consciousness — call it God or nirvana or whatever you wish."

修心七要 第五要

修心七要 第五要




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第六要 修心誓言

常學三總義 心改身如故 勿說支節缺 勿思他人事 先治重煩惱
不求於果報 莫噉雜毒食 不求於深記 勿作世諍罵 不俟於狹路
不可傷其要 氂載勿牛馱 功利莫爭先 勿作邪法用 天莫變成魔
樂支不求苦

修心不違戒  恆學三種義
轉欲住本位  不應說殘支
全莫思他過  先淨重煩惱
斷一切果求  棄捨毒食
莫學直報   莫發惡言
勿候險阻   莫刺心處
犛載莫移牛  不爭先得
不作經懺   天莫成魔
樂因莫求苦

修心七要第六要的兩種漢譯.
在諸上師的講譯裡每一要皆設有綱目. 第六要是「修心誓言」.
目前見到全篇的漢譯有三種, 上面所列舉的兩種依序為卻殿仁波切解經程立人譯句以及開藏老和尚解經用句, 另有一種是嘉察仁波切解經堪布羅卓丹傑譯句. 英譯則有兩種, 分別在Rigpa Wiki和奧修的“The Book of Wisdom”裡.
無論何種漢譯或英譯都有助於認識這些法要, 將之逐句比對則能發現更多需要沉思之處. 傳統解說與奧修解說最好也都能一起研讀. 這將構成下一階段我在修心七要上的工作.
奧修自然更直入定慧深義. 例如「心改身如故」傳統說的是轉化以我為主的念頭, 珍惜,重視他人. 同時是在內心祕密地修心, 而不是外在示現得如修行者一般. 奧修說的則是改變意識傾向從理智到心, 從心到本性, 最後再從本性到無而得涅槃. 這是一條阿底峽帶著弟子們依次前行的成道之路.
或許是對核心的堅持, 奧修的解說有時容易導向觀照層面, 而對我們初學者來說實際的規範可能也很必要. 像「勿作邪法用」奧修重點放在所有的看法見解都是偏見邪法, 傳統則解作不要濫用修心教法, 譬如為了消除病痛或求得褔報才去修持.不過各自所引用的經文原本就有不小差距.
奧修終究屬於純粹的靜心者, 而非特定的宗教傳承. 他在談的始終都是要望向那更高的. 身為一個‘人’, 我們從最初就應該追求最深的快樂, 就值得擁有最終的自由.

“Think of something higher—–something that is beyond death, something that cannot be destroyed, something that is indestructible, something that transcends time — and sorrow will not be created.
If you search the ultimate, each moment of your life will become more and more peaceful, calm, quiet, cool, fragrant. If you search for the ultimate, if you search for the truth, or God or nirvana or whatsoever you want to call it; if you are in search for the deepest in life and the highest in life and you are not after spurious things, then your very search will bring a new quality to your being. You will feel rooted, integrated; you will feel together. And you will feel a new joy arising in your heart, not coming from the outside.
The real joy never comes from the outside, it is the spurious that comes from the outside—-death can take away only that which has come from the outside.
Death happens only on the without, it never happens within. Death happens on the outside, never on the inside; the inside is eternal. Your interiority is beyond death — it has always been here, will always be here, but you are unaware of it. You go on running after shadows, and the real waits for you to look in, to turn in, to tune in.
So the first thing: seek that which is deathless, and sooner or later you will knock on the doors of heaven.”

修心七要 第六要

修心七要 第六要




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第七要 修心學處

一貫眾瑜伽 一伏諸邪倒 初後修二事 二境皆安忍 捨命護二戒
勤學三難事 取三主要因 修三不退失 具三不捨離 於境無偏党
遍深研眾善 常修諸法要 不待眾緣備 今當修諸要 勿作顛倒知
不可以輕急 徹底善修習 觀察令解脫 勿作喜新念 勿作矜夸念
氣量勿狹隘 勿貪著報取

諸瑜伽修   諸倒覆修
初後作二事  二境皆應忍
二事捨命護  當學三種難
取三主要因  修三無失壞
成就三無離  於境無黨修
徧徹底善習  於怨敵恆修
不依賴餘緣  今當修主要
不應顛倒   不應間輟
應堅決修   觀擇令脫
不應自恃   不應暴戾
不輕喜怒   莫著聲譽

修心七要第七要的兩種漢譯, 所說的是修心準則.
開頭五頌奧修的解說, 若用傳統點的詞彙來翻譯, 依序是談到道心, 覺性, 感念與省視一日之終始, 堪忍, 智慧與慈悲. 而第六頌的三種難是在行為發生之際, 行為尚未發生僅念頭形成之際, 念頭尚未形成僅感受出現之際皆能生起覺性, 亦即傳統教義裡的認知, 對治, 和根除煩惱業行.
戒定慧的基本要素, 也是奧修靜心的重要內涵啊.

末後四頌是在說開始修心修法後自己該留意的心態——誇耀矜喜, 為嫉妒心所吞噬, 恣意妄為而結怨, 期求回報.
這些都曾發生在我身上, 至今也未能全擺脫掉.
這系列的修心撰述, 乃至整個桑雅靜心劇坊專頁, 真的是真誠無私的嗎? 真的有必要存在嗎?
至少, 有一個感覺是能肯定其價值的.
為此, 我就繼續下去了.

「取三主要因」「修三無失壞」「成就三無離」在傳統教導裡是指依止上師, 修心戒律, 順緣具足, 身口意不離善行等.
奧修則提出了佛法僧. 眾人合誦三皈依文「Buddham sharanam gachchhami, Sangham sharanam gachchhami, Dhammam sharanam gachchhami」曾是奧修社區的常態靜心以及慶祝活動的必備項目.

“Now a very important sutra. The last three sutras are just golden. Keep them in your heart: they will nourish you, they will strengthen you, they will transform you. Particularly for my sannyasins, they are of immense value.
What are those three parts of the principal cause? In the tradition of Buddha there are three famous shelters: buddham sharanam gachchhami: I go to the feet of the buddha, I surrender myself to the buddha. sangham sharanam gachchhami: I go to the feet of the commune, I surrender myself to the buddhafield. dhammam sharanam gachchhami: I surrender myself to the ultimate law which is personified by the buddha and is searched for by the commune, which has become actual in the buddha and is an inquiry in the commune. These three are the most important things for a seeker: the master, the commune, and the dhamma, Tao, logos, the ultimate law.
Unless you are in contact with one who has already realized, it is almost impossible for you to grow. The hindrances are millions, the pitfalls many, the false doors many, the temptations are many; there is every possibility of going astray. Unless you are in the company of someone who knows the way, who has traveled the way, who has arrived, it is almost impossible for you to reach. Unless your hands are in the hands of someone whom you can trust and to whom you can surrender, you are bound to go astray. The mind creates so many temptations — so alluring they are, so magnetic is their power — that unless you are in the power-field of someone whose magnetism is far more powerful than any other kind of temptation, it is impossible to reach. That is the meaning of disciplehood.”

修心七要 第七要

修心七要 第七要




                                                              ※※※※※※※


結語

由自勝解力 摧苦及惡名 求治我執教 今死亦無憾

將此五濁世 轉為菩提道 教授甘露藏 從金洲傳來
由醒夙習業 多勝解為因 能輕苦譏謗 請調執教授 今死亦無悔

修心七要結語的兩種漢譯.
前者缺少「從金洲傳來」數句. བློ་སྦྱོང་, 修心在西藏的傳承始於由印入藏的阿底峽, 他曾在金洲法稱處學習菩提心經論12年. 此法教在藏地延續數代後至切卡瓦造出這篇修心七要. 經論版本的差異或可反映出宗派傳承過程中立論聚焦上的不同.
金洲一般認為即蘇門答臘. 法稱生於當地, 曾赴印度向彌勒論師學習.
時代變遷幅度之大, 在中世紀前的東南亞海島, 南亞內陸, 西亞各國, 那是另一番宗教人文風景.
「五濁世」另譯為「盛五濁」. 後者通於奧修的解說, 即我們的佛性因身心俗塵的積累而遭到掩蓋. 然而修行這條路同樣也是累世的歷程. 所以我們會被靈性的文字所吸引, 會去體驗各種身心靈活動, 最後會追隨某位師父, 認真地調伏自心, 期望活在無我的神性之中.
AMRITASYA PUTRAH——不朽之子. 奧修在即將結束解說此段結語時吐露了這個詞彙. 它的原始出處是夜柔吠陀裡其中一段的白騾奧義書. 維韋卡南達於1893年芝加哥世界宗教會議的演講亦有引用.
「今死亦無憾」很難想像吧, 奧修會希望他的門徒們有一天也能說出這樣的話.

“BY AWAKENING THE KARMIC ENERGY OF PREVIOUS TRAINING….
He said, “It must have been because in my past lives I have been disciplining myself in many ways, that I must have gathered a certain karmic energy, that I could find the
master, that I was fortunate enough to find the master."
AND BY VIRTUE OF MY INTENSE INTEREST…
… my passionate desire to know the truth. Only two things are needed: energy to seek, and passionate interest to put that energy into a certain direction.
I IGNORED MISERY AND BAD REPUTATION….
When you come to a master, and the master is REALLY a master, the society will be
against you, the society will create misery for you. You will have to suffer many kinds of things — bad reputation.
I IGNORED MISERY AND BAD REPUTATION….
“It must have been because of my past karmic energy, it must have been because for many lives I have been seeking and searching."
Everybody is an ancient pilgrim.
I IGNORED MISERY AND BAD REPUTATION….
It is very difficult to ignore misery and bad reputation. Now for my sannyasins I am
creating a thousand and one kinds of difficulties. The world will be against you: wherever you will go, you will have a bad reputation, mm? Just to be associated with me will be enough for people to condemn you, ridicule you, think of you as if you are mad or something.
Only those who are real seekers will be able to ignore all this misery and bad reputation. Those who are just curious, they will not be able to do it. Only the fortunate ones, only the courageous ones, only the true seekers, will be able to ignore everything, will be able to sacrifice everything, will be able to stake everything.
Once you have come in contact with a living master, then all else is meaningless; then everything can be staked, it can be easily sacrificed.
AND SOUGHT INSTRUCTION TO CONTROL EGO-CLINGING.
“I dropped the people, I ignored what they say. Instead, I poured my whole energy into one thing: how to drop this idea of ego, how to drop ego-clinging."
All these sutras are nothing but the whole science of destroying ego. Once the ego is no more there, once you are no more separate from existence, once you don’t think yourself separate from existence, immediately you are enlightened. Here the ego disappears; there God appears — immediately, instantly.
NOW, EVEN WHEN I DIE, I’LL HAVE NO REGRET.
I hope my sannyasins will also be able to say that one day.
NOW, EVEN WHEN I DIE, I’LL HAVE NO REGRET.
It is possible only if bodhichitta is attained. It is possible only if you have come to know your innermost essential core — that it is not personal, that it is universal; that it is not mortal, that it is immortal; that it has nothing to do with time and space, that it is eternity itself.
AMRITASYA PUTRAH: we are sons of immortality.
Once you have known it, life is not a regret.
Life is a blessing, a benediction.
Meditate on Atisha, listen to his advice; it is of immense value. It is not a philosophy, it is a manual to discipline yourself, it is a manual of inner transformation. It is the book that can help you grow into wisdom. I call it The Book of Wisdom.”

修心七要 結語

修心七要 結語




One thought on “བློ་སྦྱོང ─ 修心八頌與修心七要

  1. 引用通告: 修心七要 ─ 各句研習 | 桑雅劇場 Sannyas Theatre

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